The Rocking-Horse Winner by D. H. Lawrence (Summary)

There was a mother who seemed to feel bitterness and disappointment about her family life. Even though she had bonny children and lived in a pleasant house with discreet servants, she always thought that she was unlucky woman. This because she and her husband had small income and thus could not cover their expensive life style. This beautiful mother needed more money, there must be more money. So the house came t be haunted by the whisper that nobody could hear it but the mother and the children even the dolls. The whisper said, there must be more money, there must be more money! it repeated all the time.
One day Paul, her little boy, asked her about luck and she said that it was what caused someone to have money. Paul thought he was a lucky one, riding his rocking-horse and asked God for luck. A miracle came, God gave him what he whished for. He seemed to know about the racing horse, what horse that would win in the race appeared in his head. He asked Bassett, a gardener, to help him put money in the race. So they became a partner. The first race they failed, but after that they always won.
When Uncle Oscar visited this family, he saw that his nephew who was Paul mentioned about horsing race. Paul told Uncle Oscar that he could be sure about the horse that would win the race. At the first the uncle could not believe Paul, so he asked Bassett and finally figured out that it was a true. Uncle Oscar asked Paul about the money he got from the race, “what will you do with the money, Paul?” Paul answered “I will give them all to mother, I want to stop the whisper in our house”. So they, Paul, Bassett, and Uncle Oscar kept the secret of Paul’s gift.
Uncle Oscar helped Paul to manage the money. He came to the lawyer’s family and gave the money then the lawyer told Paul’s mother to take this money, a thousand pounds in her birthday, five times. The lawyer said the money came from her relative. The day of the mother’s birthday came, she got the letter that mentioned about the money. But strangely, she seemed unhappy about it. The mother came to the lawyer and she wanted to take all money, five thousand pounds. The lawyer asked for agreement from Uncle Oscar who also asked Paul for the agreement, and Paul said yes.
When the mother got the money, she bought everything she needed. But something terrible happened, the whisper went mad, it became louder than ever: “ There must be more money! Oh-oh-h-h: there must be more money, oh now, now-w!-more than ever! More than ever!”. Paul afraid about it, he did not like the whisper, he wanted the whisper went away from his house.
While the whisper became mad, Paul seemed to lose his magic. He could not know weather which horse would win the race and he had lost some money for it. Paul became mad as the whisper. One time he rode the rocking-horse, asking God for the answer, he tried it over and over again, suddenly he screamed “ Malabar, Malabar!” and the following days he was sick, staying at the bad all the time. Bassett came visited him and said that Malabar won, he had won the race! Finally, Paul woke up and said to his mother that he was really a lucky person but unfortunately he died that night. Leaving his mother with some mystery of her boy. But then Uncle Oscar said to his sister that Paul was best gone out of a life where he rides his rocking-horse to find a winner.
This story reminds us of stories about wishes coming true, or about a magic gift that turned out to be mixed blessing, or may be a curse. It also described a critical picture in of upper middle-class society in the early twentieth century. We can take some moral messages in this rocking-horse story. Thus are, be careful what you wish for because you just might  get it all and some you do not want to, and always be a thankful person.

bahasa Inggris

Commonly Related and Misused Words in English

Most of us have studied English for years, started from fifth grade of elementary school or lower than that. However, English is foreign language for us and we find it difficult to study since we are rarely speaking in English. The reason of its strange language doesn’t make it is possible for us to learn English and speak English fluently.
Actually, learning English can be easier if we are interested in it. This interesting can be started by reading any kind of English texts, speaking English and listening to English speech or songs. In many kind of those activities, we are often confused about some related words and sometimes do not understand the differences between them.
This time I will show you all some of those related words.
These words are similar in meaning or pronunciation but they cannot be used interchangeably.
a)    Advice (noun) is an opinion given to someone or counseling.
E.g. If I heed the lecturer’s advice, I will do well in my studies.

Advise (verb) is an act of giving an opinion or counsel.
E.g. My dad advised me patience.
b)    Affect (verb) is an act to produce a change in.
E.g. The doctors wanted to see how the medication would affect the patient.
Effect 1. (noun) end result or consequence e.g.
c)    Already (adverb) is an action that happened at an indefinite time before the present.
E.g. my dad’s plane had already landed before I got to the airport.

All ready (noun + adjective) which means prepared to do something.
E.g. we are all ready to go swimming.
d)    Example (noun) is anything used to prove a point.
E.g. she has shown some good examples in her presentation.
 Sample (noun) is a representative part of a whole.
E.g. A lady in the supermarket gives me a sample of cheese.
e)    Formerly (adverb) means previously.
E.g. My mother formerly worked as a teacher, but now she is a secretary.
Formally (adverb) 1. An elegant way of dressing, it is usually a tuxedo for men and a long gown for women.
E.g. I was required to dress formally for attending my sister wedding ceremony.
f)    House (noun) refers to the building or structure
E.g. I am building a new house in Bandung.
Home (noun) refers to the atmosphere or feeling of domestic tranquility found in a house.
E.g. home is where the heart is.

Besides of the related words, there are also some words which are misused for two reasons
a.    Sometimes the spellings are so similar that we fail to distinguish between them
i)    Angel (noun) is a spiritual or heavenly being.
Angle (noun) is a figure formed by two lines meeting at a common point.
ii)    Dessert (noun) is the final course of meal, usually something sweet.
E.g. I had apple pie for dessert last night.
Desert (noun) is a hot, dry place.
E.g. it is not easy to survive in the desert without water.
Desert (verb) is an act of abandoning.
E.g. parents never desert their children.
iii)    Quiet (adjective) is serene or without noise.
e.g.  The class was so quiet that we could hear our own breath.
Quite (adverb) 1. Completely.
E.g. you are quite capable of taking the leader position in our team.
2. Somewhat or rather.
E.g. I was quite tired after my first day of job.
 Quit (verb) means stop.

E.g. I quit smoking on my own decision.
b.    Others are pronounced exactly the same but have different meanings and spelling
i)    Cite (v):  an example.
e.g.  I had to cite many references in my history paper.
Site (n) means location.
E.g. the street in front of my house will be the site of the new shopping center.
Sight (noun) 1. Aim (of a gun or telescope) 2. View
E.g. through the site of the telescope, I can see the real shape of the moon.
E.g. watching the landing of an airplane was an amazing sight for me.
Sight (verb) see.
E.g. we sighted a boat in the river.
ii)    Peace (n) is harmony or freedom of war.
E.g. peace means no war in this world.
Piece (n) is part of a whole.
E.g. I eat a piece of chocolate every day.
iii)    Principal a. (noun) is a director of an elementary or secondary school b. (adjective) is main or most important.
E.g. the principal called me for coming to his office.
E.g. Jane was the principal speaker in the debate competition.
Principle (noun) is fundamental rule or adherence to such rule.
E.g. my dad is a man who believes that truthfulness is the best principle.
iv)    Stationery (adjective) means no movable or having a fixed location.
E.g. the rain would be stationary for several days.
Stationary (noun) is a kind of special writing paper.
E.g. I bought monogram stationery in the book store.
v)    Than (conjunction) is used in unequal comparison.
E.g. today’s weather is worse than yesterday’s
Then (adverb) is a time following previously mentioned time.
E.g. I wake up then take a bath.
vi)    To (preposition) is toward, until, as far as.
E.g. I go to Bandung.
Two (noun or adjective) is number following one.
E.g. human being has two hands and two legs.
Too (adverb) 1. Excessively 2. Also
E.g. this morning was too cold for me to take a bath
E.g. Jane went to Bandung last night, and we did too.

From all those words problems, we can see how English has many words that similar each others. The solution for this problem is we should learn much more English by reading more, listening more and speaking more English.

bahasa Inggris

Writing Mistakes in English made by Indonesian People

1.    Say and Tell
These verbs have the same meaning; however the grammar is absolutely different. ‘Tell’ is used if there is an indirect object
(if we mention the person to whom the words are spoken).
e.g. I told a story last night.
The rule is: subject + tell + indirect object + (that) + subject + verb….
‘Say’ is used if there is no indirect object.
E.g.  He says that he is busy today.
The rule is: subject + say + (that) + subject + verb…
2.    Do and make
Sometime we say or write incorrect sentence like “mum, could I go out now? I have made my homework.”
3.    Antecedent of pronouns
•    Henry was denied admission to graduate school because they did not believe that he could handle the work load.
The correct sentence probably should be like this:
•    The members of the admissions committee denied Henry admission to graduate school because they do not believe that he could handle the work load.


The Glass Menagerie By Tennessee Williams (1911-1983)

•    Analysis Scene 1-2
The social background that is emphasized several times in the play is important. It is the macrocosmic reflection of the microcosm of the Wingfield family. In scene 1, Tom mentions the economic depression of the 1930s, and this mirrors the economic circumstances and worries of the Wingfield family.
Scene 1 is dominated by Amanda, who reveals how difficult she is to live with. She lectures Tom all the time, telling him what to do and how he should live. It is no wonder that he, who is the poetic, imaginative member of the family, wants to escape.
It is clear that Amanda lives in an illusory world of her own. She is really living in the past, looking back to an ideal South of her youth that probably never really existed. She is surely exaggerating when she recalls her seventeen gentlemen callers on just one afternoon-a story she has told many times before.
If Amanda lives in the past and nourishes illusions regarding the present, Laura has extreme difficulties of her own, as scene 2 shows. She is shown polishing her glass animals, which seem to be all she has in life. Self-conscious about being lame, she retreats inward and cannot face the world. It is clear that both Amanda and Laura, in their different ways, are trapped in their small worlds. There seems to be no future for them.

•    Analysis Scene 3
If the previous scene showed how Amanda and Laura were each trapped in their own ways, this scene shows how Tom is trapped too. He is by nature a poet and a writer (as the pile of manuscripts on the table shows), and he cannot bear to fritter his life away working at the warehouse. He knows he has to escape.
The difference between Tom and his mother can be seen in their tastes in literature. Amanda likes romantic, escapist fiction of the sort published in The Home-maker’s Companion, which suits her old-fashioned view of the world. Tom prefers D. H. Lawrence, who lauds the sensual, instinctive, earthy dimension to life. But Amanda regards Lawrence’s books as “filth.”
It is obvious that the glass menagerie is a symbol of the fragility of Laura’s life. When some of the animals are accidentally broken, she cries out “as if wounded.”

•    Analysis Scene 4
Amanda seems oblivious to the fact that her controlling, critical nature is certain to drive Tom away. But she cannot bear the thought that Tom is going to take after his father, and she sees the warning signs already. Their dialog shows that not only are they trapped as far as their external situation is concerned, they are also (like many of the characters in Williams’s plays) unable to communicate their feelings fully. There is an entire emotional world that exists somewhere beyond the grasp of words. Amanda says, for example, that “There’s so many things in my heart that I cannot describe to you!”, and Tom replies, “There’s so much in my heart that I can’t describe to you!” Tom’s solution is that they should just accept this and respect each other’s privacy, but this is not something that Amanda would ever be able to do.
When Tom tells his mother that “Man is by instinct a lover, a hunter, a fighter,” he is probably influenced by his reading of D.H. Lawrence, since that sounds like something from the Lawrentian creed. Amanda, on the other hand, aspires, or convinces herself she aspires, to a higher realm of being, beyond instinct, which is something humans share with the animals. She wants “superior things! Things of the mind and spirit!” and she mentions Christianity. There is obviously going to be no meeting of minds between these two, however long they talk. But they do have a common concern for Laura.

•    Analysis Scene 5
The scene begins and ends with wishful thinking, as first Tom and Amanda and then Amanda and Laura make wishes on the moon. For Amanda, this kind of thinking is all she has left. It highlights the gap between the harsh and unpromising world she lives in and her efforts, some practical and others based on romantic illusions, to break out of it and make her life bearable.
In this scene Tom makes another attempt to paint the wider social background, when he mentions Berchtesgaden (Adolf Hitler’s summer retreat), Neville Chamberlain (the British prime minister who thought he had negotiated a peace treaty with Hitler at Munich in 1938) and Guernica. Guernica was a Basque village which was attacked by Nazi bombers on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War. The planes dropped 100,000 pounds of bombs and incendiaries. Seventy percent of the town was destroyed and 1,500 people, a third of the population, were killed.

•    Analysis Scene 6
Amanda’s frantic preparations, and the dress she wears, are out of all proportion to the event. Once more shows how she is still living in an idealized southern past, in which invitations for young ladies keep pouring in and there were parties all over the Delta: “Evenings, dances!-Afternoons, long, long rides! Picnics-lovely!-So lovely, that country in May.-All lacy, with dogwood, literally flooded with jonquils!”
Jim is a sharp contrast to the other three characters. Just as he arrives, Amanda says in frustration to Laura, “Why can’t you and your brother be normal people?” Jim is one of those normal people. He has found that real life is much harder than being in high school, where he was outstanding, and in six years he has not advanced very far in life. But he is ambitious, and ready to take his place in the American mainstream (unlike any of the marginalized Wingfield family). His chosen interest is radio engineering and television-the industries of the future, and his evening classes in public speaking make it clear that he believes in the American Dream. He believes that if you work hard and study, you can get ahead, which is an ethos that Amanda has earlier tried to instill in Tom, without any success. Jim is therefore attuned to the society in which he lives, but Amanda, Laura and Tom are all, in their different ways, people who do not fit in.

•    Analysis Scene 7
This is the longest scene in the play, and takes up about one-third of the action. It is dramatically effective in part because it focuses on the meeting between the extravert Jim and the introvert Laura. Will he succeed in drawing her out? Will he be the Prince Charming to her Cinderella? But the audience senses that this cannot be.
Jim does his best with Laura, using what he has learned in his night school classes about how to have self-confidence in dealing with others. The “pop” psychology has been good enough for him in his quest to improve himself, but poor Laura is in need of much more than a pep talk. Jim is well-meaning, but he allows his enthusiasm to run away with him. His clumsy breaking of the glass unicorn is a very obvious piece of symbolism, foreshadowing his unintentional shattering of Laura a few moments later.
Laura is broken completely by this sudden disillusionment. As the playwright puts it as the scene with Laura and Jim begins, this scene “is the climax of her secret life.” The truth is that in six years, she has not forgotten Jim, even though they were barely acquainted with each other. For Laura to live without hope is one thing, but to have hope and joy suddenly erupt so unexpectedly, followed by their sudden loss, is an even more devastating experience than mere hopelessness. The look on Laura’s face is one of “almost infinite desolation.”
After Jim’s departure, the play draws to a close with the predictable pattern reasserting itself, as Amanda accuses Tom of selfishness and he goes out to the movies. Nothing much has changed in these difficult, restricted lives.
At the end, as Tom describes his life since he escaped from this stifling environment, the audience watches Amanda and Laura acting out a soundless pantomime; it is as if the characters are behind transparent, soundproof glass. They have both become like members of a glass menagerie, cut off in an unfulfilled, desperate and fragile world of their own.

•    Character Profil
    Jim O’Connor Jim O’Connor is a friend of Tom’s from the warehouse where they both work. Tennessee Williams describes him in his notes to the play as “A nice, ordinary young man.” Jim is the “gentleman caller” who is invited to dinner by Tom, and in whom Amanda places her hopes for finding a husband for Laura. Jim was an outstanding success in high school, and everyone thought he would succeed in life. However, in the six years that have elapsed since he graduated, he has found life much tougher than he might have expected. At the warehouse, he is a shipping clerk, which is only a slightly better position than Tom’s. However, Jim is a cheerful, optimistic young man, who is determined to get on in life. He is studying public speaking and radio engineering at night school, and wants to go into the fledgling television industry. When he visits the Wingfield family, Jim does his best to draw Laura out of her shell, but his enthusiasm runs away with him and he makes the mistake of kissing her. He then has to explain that he must disappoint her because he has a steady girlfriend named Betty.

    Amanda Wingfield Amanda Wingfield is the mother of Tom and Amanda. Amanda spent her youth in the south, and in a way she continues to live there, endlessly telling her children stories of her life back in those days. Her desire to live in the past is perhaps not surprising, given that it was so much more enjoyable than the life she has in the present-living on limited means in an apartment in a rundown area of St. Louis. Amanda’s husband deserted her sixteen years ago, and she is scared that Tom will turn out like his father. But she does not realize that by her constant attempts to manage his life for him, she is driving him away. Amanda is resourceful and energetic, and her sole ambition is that her son and daughter should be successful and happy. But her attempts to marry off Laura to Jim are a terrible failure and leave her desolate, although she still manages to put a brave face on things.

    Laura Wingfield Laura Wingfield is Amanda’s daughter. She is an extremely shy young woman in her early twenties. Following a childhood illness she is crippled, and wears a leg brace. Laura is so withdrawn, so unable to make contact with reality, that she spends her time playing with her collection of glass animals and listening to gramophone records. The failure of her encounter with Jim makes her even more withdrawn. Tennessee Williams wrote of her, “she is like a piece of her own glass collection, too exquisitely fragile to move from the shelf.”

    Tom Wingfield Tom Wingfield is the narrator of the play as well as a character in it. He is Amanda’s son and Laura’s brother. Tom is a poet, and he feels stifled by his unrewarding job at the warehouse and the tense situation at home, where he is always quarreling with his controlling mother. He wants to escape his situation, just as his father managed to escape many years before. His goal is to join the merchant marine, and he is prepared to be ruthless in accomplishing his goal-for example, paying his dues to the seaman’s union with the money that should have been used to pay the electricity bill. But even though he does manage to leave the family home, he does not find happiness. As he travels from city to city, he cannot forget the sister he left behind.

•    Theme Analysis
    Imprisonment and Escape
The Wingfields’ apartment is like a prison from which Amanda and Laura are unable to escape. By the end of the play, they are even more deeply enmeshed in their claustrophobic, closed world than they were at the beginning. Amanda’s great hope was that Laura would graduate from a business college and pursue a career as a secretary, but once she finds out that Laura was too shy even to attend classes, she pins all her hopes on finding Laura a husband. When that scheme fails too, all hope seems lost. A life of worry, economic insecurity and dependency seems inevitable. As a contrast to this, an image of escape is presented throughout the play, in the form of the photograph of the father that hangs on the wall. But when Tom follows his father’s example and walks out on his family, he finds that however far he travels, he remains trapped by the reach of memory. He cannot forget his sister and her plight. So in the end there is no escape from the family prison for any of the three characters.

    Illusions and Reality
The two women in the play, Amanda and her daughter, Laura, live inside their own illusions because the outside world is too painful for them to face. Amanda lives in another time and place, the genteel, idealized world of the south during her youth. But St. Louis during the 1930s is a different proposition altogether, and Amanda fails to make the adjustment. She endlessly repeats exaggerated tales of the south, and her numerous “gentlemen callers.” She assumes that what worked for her (even though the man she chose walked out on her) will work for Laura too, even though times have changed. Tom tries to force her to face the facts that Laura is different than other girls, but Amanda refuses to accept this. All she can do is wish on the moon that things will turn out the way she wants them to. Laura is even more deeply enmeshed in an illusory world than her mother. Too shy and too lacking in self-confidence to cope with the real world, she retreats to an inner world. She talks of her glass animals as if they are real beings, and her only other interest is in playing the old gramophone records that her father left behind. It is hard to imagine what the future might hold for her.

    The American Dream
Set against the economic frustration of the Wingfield family, which leads to a closed circle of experience, is the ideal of the American Dream, which points ever upward. In spite of her impoverished life in the St. Louis of the 1930s, Amanda is a believer in the Dream. She tells Tom that he simply has to work hard, and he will succeed. But the poetic, imaginative Tom is not the sort of man to cultivate a normal career leading to success and wealth. Those are not his goals. The idea of the American Dream is represented more by Jim. He is in love with the achievements and the promise of technology, and he has embraced the spirit of self-help and advancement through education. He believes that his life is on an upward trajectory, and that if he studies and plays his cards right, he can go as far as he wants to go in his career.
•    Metaphor Analysis
    victrola – the escape and the private world of Laura.
    jonquils – a reminder of Amanda’s glorious past.
    magic show – the escape so desired by Tom.
    glass menagerie – Laura’s private world, and the breaking of it.
    fire escape – simply the escape from Amanda’s world.  Tom seeks to leave it, but Laura stumbles whenever she does.
    unicorn – Laura’s singularity, her return to reality, and her return to her retreat back into her world.
    candelabrum – Tom’s relationship (or lack thereof) with his family.
    scarf – Tom’s attempt to share his magic and desire for escape with Laura.
    gentleman caller – the real world as opposed to Amanda’s imagined one.



The Power of Oppressed Country in George Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant

The fort which prevents the freedom to reach out something new, different or opposite thing will be created as someone or a group of people has positioned him and others at certain things. In this case, the European tried to perpetuate his power by a variety of forms through colonizing the east, Burma, including in the domination of thoughts. However, the domination of mind they have created becomes a kind of boomerang for their freedom to act. In Passage 1, recounted how at the time the Europeans treat the Burmese people and all treatments was described by the Burmese resentment against the Europeans.
“As a police officer I was an obvious target and was baited whenever it seemed safe to do so. When a nimble Burman tripped me up on the football field and the referee (another Burman) looked the other way, the crowd yelled with hideous laughter. This happened more than once. In the end the sneering yellow faces of young men that met me everywhere, the insults hooted after me when I was at a safe distance, got badly on my nerves. The young Buddhist priests were the worst of all. There were several thousands of them in the town and none of them seemed to have anything to do except stand on street corners and jeer at Europeans.”
Shooting Elephant describes the imperialism according to imperialist’s point of view. How a European police officer who worked in Burma to feel confined by the Burmese. It is very ironic as it was the Europeans, the colonizers, who restraint the freedom of the Burmese. Until finally he has a conclusion in passage 7
“I perceived in this moment that when the white man turns tyrant it is his own freedom that he destroys.”
Receiving such a bad treatment from the Burmese, like it has been said before, then the police hated the imperialism.
“For at that time I had already made up my mind that imperialism was an evil thing and the sooner I chucked up my job and got out of it the better.”
“As for the job I was doing, I hated it more bitterly than I can perhaps make clear.”
“all these oppressed me with an intolerable sense of guilt.”
Even so, he tried to hide her guilt by saying “I was young and ill-educated and I had had to think out my problems in the utter silence that is imposed on every Englishman in the East.” And  “All I knew was that I was stuck between my hatred of the empire I served and my rage against the evil-spirited little beasts who tried to make my job impossible.” And “Feelings like these are the normal by-products of imperialism”
The obligation to behave as a European became the patron to hide his guilt for colonizing. It is also described that having that kind of guilt is a natural thing as a form of imperialism products. The European’s leaders make their people to have an attitude like that. It is not surprisingly if until this second they may not feel guilty for colonialism they have done in various countries because they hide the crimes of imperialism by arguing that imperialism is ‘the noble mission’ because it aims to modernize ‘the backward countries’. Burma and other colonies are considered as objects which should be moved forward by using the West as its representation of benchmark.
The moment of the uncontrolled raging of the elephant as it destroyed people’s homes gives awareness to the police. That all this time, he had been blind to the situation in front of his eyes, how this raging elephant actually symbolizes European government’s arbitrariness.
“It was a tiny incident in itself, but it gave me a better glimpse than I had had before of the real nature of imperialism – the real motives for which despotic governments act.”
This consciousness then strengthened by the sentence in Passage 4
“That is invariably the case in the East; a story always sounds clear enough at a distance, but the nearer you get to the scene of events the vaguer it becomes.”
The sentence above describes a proverb which says “the elephant in the eyelid is invisible but the ant in the across of the sea is clearly visible.” How he is not aware of his government’s atrocities until a raging elephant comes up in front of his eyes and revives him.
The interesting thing happened when the officer holds a weapon,
“As I started forward practically the whole population of the quarter flocked out of the houses and followed me.”
“They had not shown much interest in the elephant when he was merely ravaging their homes, but it was different now that he was going to be shot.”
The attitude of Burmese change dramatically when a raging elephant like to be shot, they are enthusiastic and curious in following these performances, even for a moment forgetting their hatred for the Europeans. They want the elephant to be shot. It is similar with people now who seem forgetting the colonialism which lasted for centuries and do not realize that most of us are still occupied his mind by the fanfare of modernization, which was launched by the Western nations so that they can keep continue to dominate the world according to their own perspective.  This moment shows us how a show can divert the attention; changing their hostility towards the Europeans.
When the police was holding the gun and like to shoot elephant, there was thousands people followed behind him and this created boundaries between people of Burma as spectators and the European with the elephant which would be shot as a show. The audiences (Burmese) wanted the elephant to be shot and as almost another shows that basically show what the audiences want to see or hear so the police felt trapped between his desire to not shoot this elephant and a desire to not be ridiculed or humiliated by thousands of spectators (the Burmese), which were directly behind him.
This also explains how a show, actually, is controlled by its audience. As Shakespeare did in his early career performances, he preferred making comedy to tragedy in case to attract the audiences in the first time. So maybe this is also the reason why horror films in Indonesia are filled of sexual scene and many people watch those films. That could be just one reason, because the audiences like and want it.
“I looked at the sea of yellow faces above the garish clothes-faces all happy and excited over this bit of fun, all certain that the elephant was going to be shot.”
“They did not like me, but with the magical rifle in my hands I was momentarily worth watching.”
“And suddenly I realized that I should have to shoot the elephant after all.”
Seeing the enthusiasm of thousands of Burmese people who follow him, the police felt no choice but to shoot the elephant, he felt that he initially disliked the people of Burma. But at that time he was the center of attention (he should satisfy the audience and the like) even though his freedom of action to follow his own instinct was really seized.
“The people expected it of me and I had got to do it; I could feel their two thousand wills pressing me forward, irresistibly”
“And it was at this moment, as I stood there with the rifle in my hands, that I first grasped the hollowness, the futility of the white man’s dominion in the East”.
“Here was I, the white man with his gun, standing in front of the unarmed native crowd – seemingly the leading actor of the piece; but in reality I was only an absurd puppet pushed to and fro by the will of those yellow faces behind”
Feeling pressured and has no choice but to the wishes of thousands of Burmese, he felt like being a European puppet controlled by the whims of Eastern people. He considered this situation as a failure of European’s domination of the East.
“And my whole life, every white man’s life in the East, was one long struggle not to be laughed at.”
Europeans (West) who imaged themselves as the superior and Burma (East) as the inferior feel that they should be upper than the East in everyway. The world of west thinks that the civilization of the East is a civilization that has not been perfect yet because it is still based on irrational worldview, mysticism and theology. As well as they (the west) in the age of Medieval which is often called the dark age because it was regarded as a time period that had bound human’s freedom in thought and action.

The Power of Oppressed Country in George Orwell’s Shooting an Elephant


Terbunuhnya Tuhan, Sebuah Tragedi di Jaman Renaissance

“Manusia adalah binatang pemuja” ungkap Nietzsche seperti yang dikutip oleh Wibowo (2009). Pernyataan ini menjelaskan bahwa manusia selalu membutuhkan pegangan di luar dirinya. Dari kebutuhan ini, bermunculanlah berbagai macam ‘tuhan’ atau pegangan. Pada zaman Romawi dan Yunani yang dianggap zaman klasik yang gemilang karena melahirkan para filsuf ternama, kebudayaan yang menawan, dan sastra yang memukau, bermunculan pula para dewa dengan berbagai mitos dan filosofinya yang tak kalah menakjubkan. Konon, pada zaman itu penggambaran akan dewa-dewa didapat dari mimpi mimpi para seniman yang kemudian mewujudkannya dalam pahatan patung, kidung-kidung indah, berbagai sajak dan syair dan kemudian berkembang menjadi cerita atau mitos. Mitos- mitos ini kemudian berkembang menjadi karya sastra yang waktu itu masih berupa pertunjukkan drama-drama tragedy. Misalnya saja drama Oedipus yang menceritakan tentang ketidakberrdayaan seorang manusia terhadap takdir yang telah ditentukan oleh dewa. Bagaimana Oedipus dengan ketidaktahuannya membunuh sang ayah dan menikahi sang ibu dan kemudian menghukum dirinya sendiri dengan membutakan kedua matanya yang menurut Nietzsche diartikan sebagai symbol bahwa ”pedang kebikjasanaan telah berbalik melawan Oedipus sang bijak”. Meskipun pada akhirnya Zeus turun tangan untuk menyelamatkan penderitaannya. Drama yang digagas oleh Sophocles ini berbeda dengan epos Odysseus yang mengisahkan perlawanan manusia melawan kehendak dewa. Apa pun itu, kedua cerita ini selalu melibatkan mitos dan para dewa, yang berarti ada sesuatu di luar manusia yang dijadikan pegangan.
Kebudayaan Yunani- Romawi kuno ini merupakan dua peradaban yang sangat berpengaruh di Eropa. Pengaruh dua kebudayaan ini sempat mati ketika agama Kristen dating ke Eropa, segala hal yang bukan Kristen dilarang. Ketika kebebasan manusia dibelenggu, maka ia akan berontak dan berusaha melepaskan diri dari segala hal yang mengancam kebebasannya. Pada saat inilah timbul apa yang dinamakan kesadaran Eropa, keengganan untuk mengakui hal-hal yang sifatnya tidak rasional. Kesadaran ini sebenarnya dipengaruhi oleh empat  sumber, menurut hanafi seperti dikutip oleh Wibowo (2009), kesadaran Eropa memiliki empat sumber. Dua diantaranya adalah sumber yang terekspos dan dua lainnya tidak terekspos. Dua yang terekspos adalah sumber Yunani-Romawi dan sumber Yahudi- Kristen, sementara yang tidak terekspos adalah sumber Timur lama dan lingkungan Eropa sendiri.
Dengan tereksposnya dua sumber pertama, seolah-olah menunjukkan bahwa Eropa menjadi peradaban yang ideal, tentu saja menurut representasi ‘mereka’ dan disebarkan melalui ekspansi-ekspansi ke daerah timur. Kebudayaan timur yang penuh dengan hal-hal yang berbau irrasional dianggap sebagai budaya kegelapan, sebagaimana Eropa di jaman pertengahan, dan mereka ‘membantu’ memeberikan pencerahan terhadap budaya timur dengan jalan kolonisasi. Sementara itu, pengaruh Timur lama yang pada saat itu berarti kemajuan budaya Islam hingga sampai ke Eropa karena mengadopsi kebudayaan Romawi- Yunani dianggap sebagai sumber yang tidak perlu diekspos. Begitu pun dengan sumber lingkungan Eropa sendiri yang berarti munculnya kaum menengah atau borjuis yang bermotif ekonomi semata. Kaum ini memiliki pengaruh yang cukup besar dalam pembentukan renaissance, karena merekalah sistem tanah yang bersifat feudal dapat dirobohkan. Mereka juga turut andil dalam menciptakan penemuan mesin cetak.
Pemikiran untuk menolak segala hal yang berbau irrasional secara perlahan memunculkan system kapitalis, menyebarkan peradaban ‘modern’ ke berbagai daerah lainnya yang dianggap masih ‘terbelakang’. Padahal dibalik semua itu, tersimpan satu alasan sederhana, ‘kekuasaan’. Kenyataan sejarah teleh membuktikan bahwa setiap pemikiran selalu berusaha menjadi dominant. Karena itulah muncul istilah represi dan hegemoni. Menurut catatan kaki yang dikutip dari Santoso (2007: 23), dalam banyak hal, represi biasanya dipakai sebagai cara untuk melanggengkan kekuasaan melalui kekerasan, intimidasi, terror dan sebagainya. Prinsip ini digulirkan oleh Niccolo Machiavelli. Tetapi represi sesungguhnya tidaklah harus bermakna kekerasan fisik, sebab bias jadi prinsip hegemoni yang dilontarkan oleh Antonio Gramsci, misalnya, merupakan bentuk lain dari represi, yaitu melalui hegemoni ide- ide dalam mempertahankan kekuasaan. Meski pada perkembangannya kata hegemoni ini masih menurut catatan kaki yang dikutip dari Santoso (2007: 23) bahwa sejak abad ke-19, hegemoni memperoleh makna baru. Pengertiannya menjadi lebih sering merujuk pada situasi tertentu pada saat terjadinya dominasi politik dari suatu negeri kuat (superpower) terhadap negeri lain (lemah) yang biasa disebut dengan istilah imperialisme (William, 1983:144)
Adanya kaum borjuis, kapitalis,  kolonisasi, imperialisme hingga revolusi besar-besaran di bidang industri mengindikasikan pembunuhan terhadap Tuhan. Tuhan dianggap menghalangi kemajuan dunia karena kegiatan yang bersifat keagamaan selalu berorientasi terhadap akhirat. Kegiatan agama ini jelas tidak menghasilkan keuntungan bagi para pengusaha (borjuis).
Telah matikah tuhan? Ada dua hal yang terjadi ketika tuhan terbunuh. Manusia lepas dari sifat kemanusiannya (binatang pemuja) untuk kemudian mencapai apa yang Nietzsche sebut ‘Ubermensch’. Seperti yang dikutip Wibowo dkk (2009:27) Nietzsche mengatakan bahwa “Ubermensch adalah manusia yang tidak mencari pelarian pada segala yang supra-indrawi, menghadapi dunia dengan segala kebaikan dan keburukannya” dengan kata lain ia terbebas dari segala takdir karena manusia menjadi tuan atas dirinya sendiri. Hal lain yang terjadi ketika manusia tidak bias mencapai ‘Ubermensch’ maka manusia akan mencari pengganti tuhan yang telah terbunuh. Manusia kemudian menuhankan kekuasaan, sains, ideology, bahkan menuhankan ketidakpercayaan terhadap tuhan (percaya untuk tidak percaya)

Budhyono, Zulkarnain. Draft Diktat Ajar Perkembangan Kesusasteraan Inggris: Jaman Anglo Saxon Hingga Jaman Victoria
Santoso, et. al.,   2009, Epistemologi Kiri,  Yogyakarta: Ar- Ruzz Media
Wibowo, et. al.,   2009, Para Pembunuh Tuhan , Yogyakarta: Kanisius



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